Difference between distillation and simple distillation

Today Theavil.com blog tell you difference between distillation and simple distillation
Distillation or Simple distillation is a method of separating chemicals according to differences in speed or volatile state of the material.
In distillation, a mixture of substances is brought to a boil so that it evaporates, and this vapor is then cooled back into liquid form. substance with the lower boiling point will evaporate first. 
This method is included as a unit of chemical operations such as mass transfer.  The application of this section is based on the theory that in a solution, each component will evaporate at its boiling point.  The ideal model of distillation is based on Raoult’s Law and Dalton’s Law .

The following is an arrangement of a simple distillation apparatus circuit:

  1. liquid container
  2. distillation flask
  3. connection
    4. thermometer
  4. condenser
  5. cold liquid inlet
  6. cold liquid outlet
  7. pumpkin distillate
  8. air hole
  9. where the distillate comes out
  10. bath
  11. liquid bath
  12. solution of substance
  13. distillate flask
    History
    Distillation was first discovered by Greek chemists around the 1st century AD whose development was finally triggered mainly by the high demand for spirits. [3] Hypanthia of Alexandria is believed to have invented the apparatus for distillation and it was Zosimus of Alexandria who was able to accurately describe the distillation section around the 4th century.
    The modern form of distillation was first discovered by Islamic chemists during the Abbasid caliphate , especially by Al-Raze in the separation of alcohol into relatively pure compounds through alembic equipment, even this design became a kind of inspiration that allowed the design of micro-scale distillation, The Hickman Still head can be realized. [3] Writings by Jabir Ibn Haiyan (721-815) better known as Ibn Jabir mentions wine vapor that can burn. He has also invented many chemical equipment and parts which are still widely used today. The end of the refining technique was clearly described by Al-Kindi (801-873).
    One of the most important applications of the distillation method is the separation of crude oil into parts for special uses such as for transportation, power generation, heating, and others. Air is distilled into components such as oxygen for medical use and helium for balloon filling. [4] Distillation has also been used for a long time for the concentration of alcohol by the application of heat to the fermented solution to produce distilled beverages 
    Type
    There are 4 types of distillation that will be discussed here, namely simple distillation, fractional distillation, steam distillation, and vacuum distillation. In addition, there are extractive distillation and homogenous a zeotropic distillation, distillation using ionized salt, pressure-swing distillation, and reactive distillation.
    Simple Distillation
    In simple distillation, the basis of separation is a large difference in boiling point or one of the components is volatile. When the mixture is heated, the component with the lower boiling point will evaporate first.  In addition to differences in boiling points, there are also differences in volatility, namely the tendency of a substance to become a gas. This distillation is applied at atmospheric pressure.  Simple distillation is used to separate mixtures of liquids and alcohols. 
    Fractional Distillation
    The function of fractional distillation is to separate liquid components, two or more, from a solution according to differences in their boiling points. [5] This distillation can also be used for mixtures with a boiling point difference of less than 20 °C and working at atmospheric pressure or at low pressure.  Applications of this kind of distillation are used in the crude oil industry, to separate the components in crude oil 
    The difference between fractional distillation and simple distillation is the presence of a fractionating column.  In this column heating occurs gradually with different temperatures on each plate this different heating aims to purify the distillate from the plates below it.  The higher you go, the less volatile the liquid. 
    Steam Distillation
    Steam distillation is used in mixtures of compounds having a boiling point of 200 °C or more Steam distillation can vaporize these compounds to temperatures close to 100 °C under atmospheric pressure using steam or boiling liquid.  The fundamental property of steam distillation is being able to distill a mixture of compounds below the boiling point of each compound mixture.  In addition, steam distillation can be used for mixtures that are insoluble in liquids at all temperatures, but can be distilled with liquids.  The applications of steam distillation are to extract some of the world’s products such as eucalyptus oil from eucalyptus, citrus oil from lemons or oranges, and for the extraction of perfume oils from plants. 
    The mixture is heated through liquid vapor which is introduced into the mixture and may be supplemented by heating.  The vapor from the mixture will rise to the top to the condenser and finally into the distillate flask.
    Vacuum Distillation
    Vacuum distillation is usually used when the compound to be distilled is unstable, meaning it can decompose before or near its boiling point or a mixture having a boiling point above 150 °C.  This method of distillation cannot be used in solvents with low boiling points if the condenser uses a cold liquid, because the volatile components cannot be condensed by the liquid.  To reduce the pressure a vacuum pump or aspirator is used.  The aspirator functions as a pressure reducer in this distillation system. 
    Azeotrope
    An azeotrope is a mixture of two or more components that have a constant boiling point.  Azeotrope can be a disturbance that causes the distillation result to be not optimal.  The composition of the azeotrope remains constant under the application or increase of pressure.  However, when the total pressure changes, both the boiling point and the composition of the azeotrope change. As a result, the azeotrope is not a fixed component, the composition of which must always be constant in the temperature and pressure interval, but rather a mixture made up of interplay in intramolecular forces in solution. 
    Azeotropes can be distilled using the addition of certain solvents, for example the addition of benzene or toluene to separate the liquid.  The liquid and solvent will be captured by Dean-Stark’s catcher.  The liquid will remain in the bottom of the catcher and the solvent will return to the mixture and separate the liquid again.  A zeotropic mixtures are a deviation from Raoul’s law . 
    Distillation Effectiveness
    In theory, distillation results can reach 100% by lowering the pressure to 1/10 of atmospheric pressure.  It is also possible to use a zeotropic distillation which uses the addition of an organic solvent and two additional distillations, and by using cornmeal which can absorb liquid in either liquid or vapor form in the last column.  However, in practice there is no distillation that reaches 100%. 
    Industrial Scale Distillation
    Generally, the distillation section on an industrial scale is used in towers, therefore the unit section of this distillation is often referred to as a distillation tower (MD).  Distillation towers usually measure 2–5 meters in diameter and range from 6–15 meters in height. The input from the distillation tower is usually a saturated liquid, i.e. a liquid that with a slight decrease in pressure will form steam and has two outlets, the upper channel is the more volatile (volatile) channel and the lower channel which consists of heavy components. Distillation towers are divided into 2 broad categories 
    Stage wise type Distillation Tower, this tower consists of many disks which allows the equilibrium to be divided within each disk, and
    Continuous type Distillation Tower, which consists of packing and the liquid-gas equilibrium occurs along the column of the tower.

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